Evaluation and reporting Baseline review Target setting Political commitment Implementation and Monitoring Integrated management system Organisational setup Involvement and communication

Glossary

TERM

DESCRIPTION

6th Environmental Action Programme Sixth Environment Action Programme of the European Community 2002-2012. Takes a broad look at the environmental challenges and provides a strategic framework for the Commission's environmental policy. Four priority areas:Climate change, Nature and biodiversity, Environment and health, Natural resources and waste. Calls for the development of seven Thematic Strategies in the field of soil and the marine environment (in the priority area of biodiversity), air, pesticides and urban environment (in the priority area of environment, health and quality of life) and natural resources and waste recycling (in the priority area of natural resources and waste). The Thematic Strategies constitute the framework for action at EU level in each of the concerned priorities.
Aalborg charter Charter of European cities and towns towards sustainability. Provides a framework for the delivery of local sustainable development and calls on local authorities to engage in Local Agenda 21 processes.
Aalborg commitments Follow-up to the Aalborg charter, launched to re-activate LA21 actions. The Aalborg Commitments process offers local governments a specific framework to set concrete targets and tasks to develop in a sustainable way. Local governments can sign the Aalborg Commitments as a result of debate and approval by the local council.
Aarhus convention The UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters. Grants the public rights regarding access to information, public participation and access to justice, in governmental decision-making processes on matters concerning the local, national and transboundary environment. As of May 2007, it had been signed and ratified by 40 countries.
Action plan Document containing short-term targets and concrete measures (responsibilities, time frames etc.) to reach them within the sustainability management system. Based on the broader framework stated in the Strategic programme.
Base data Values measured at the beginning of the management cycle in the course of the baseline review. Needed to be able to measure progress at a later stage.
Baseline Review First element of the management cycle. Assessment of the local situation based on a large data collection and described with the help of indicators. Basis for the setting of priorities, elaboration of the strategic programme and action plan. Basis against which to compare changes over time.
Certification Validation of the fact that a set of standards have been reached. Guarantees a certain quality with respect to the certified area of activity.
Compliance audit The environmental assessment in accordance with EMAS consists of three elements. Compliance audit is an assessment of legal security
Direct aspects Activities being under direct supervision of the municipality, wholly dependent on the influence of the supervisory instance.
ecoBUDGET Management instrument developed by ICLEI that makes an analogy from natural resources with financial resources and allows a local administration to keep track of spending of the finite resources. It helps to implement Local Agenda 21 action plans
Eco-Lighthouse Programme for environmental certification of small and medium-sized companies and public administrations in Norway. Through the programme companies reduce their impact on the environment, cut costs and benefit from their status as an environmentally responsible company.
ECOLUP Environmental Management for Communal Urban Land Use Planning. Applies the European environmental management system EMAS II to communal urban land use planning processes. Develped by the Lake Constance Foundation
ECO-PROFIT ECOlogical PROject For Integrated environmental Technology. Programme for sustainable economic development. Intends to strengthen companies economically by using environmental-friendly technologies and simultaneously improving the ecological situation in a region. Develped in Graz/Austria.
EMAS The EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is the EU voluntary instrument which acknowledges organisations that improve their environmental performance on a continuous basis.
EMS Environmental management system
Environmental Impact The effect or side effect that an action has on the environment
European Sustainable Cities & Towns Campaign (ESCTC) The ESCTC seeks to meet the mandate established for the local leve in Chapter 28 of the Agenda 21 document, aiming to translate to the European level the outcomes of the Rio World Summit 1992. The Campaign combines the expertise of eight local government networks. It aims to support local governments across Europe to mainstream sustainability best practice and to implement the Aalborg Charter and Aalborg Commitments so as to achieve tangible results in local sustainable development
External audit An external audit is performed by an external verifier who performs an audit on an organisation’s strategic programme, management system and audit procedure.
External verifier An external verifier is an audit professional who performs an external audit and who is independent of the entity being audited.
Horizontal integration Integration across city departments and all relevant stakeholders in the city
IMS, Integrated management system Integrated management system, addressing both environmental and in general sustainable development issues raised by the daily management of a municipality’s whole urban area
Indicator Describes a situation in a concise and communicable way. Is used to track changes and show progress.
Indirect aspects Indirect aspects are related to those activities of the municipal administration that it does not control completely, but that it can influence to a certain extent. They can result from the interactions with third parties.
Instrument An umbrella terminology of environmental management systems and associated tools. To simplify the terminology, the instruments which form elements of management systems will be called tools. In this way the management systems coordinate tools.
Internal audit Internationally accepted specification for an (EMS). Specifies requirements for establishing an environmental policy, determining environmental aspects and impacts of products/activities/services, planning environmental objectives and measurable targets, implementation and operation of programs to meet objectives and targets, checking and corrective action, and management review.
ISO 14001 An environmental management system standard developed by ISO, International Organisation for Standardisation.
Legal requirement/Legal compliance of an EMS Full implementation of applicable environmental legislation. Compliance occurs when requirements are met and necessary adaptations are achieved.
Local Agenda 21 LA21 follows the principles of sustainable development and the goal of ensuring a better quality of life for everyone, both now and in the future. It focuses on an economic, social and environmental agenda on the local level. Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action (2500 action items) to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System, Governments, and major groups in every area in which human impacts on the environment. Agenda 21 was adopted by more than 178 Governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992.
Participatory developed mission statement The common vision of the future development of a city planning to implement an IMS, providing a long-term vision for at least 15-20 years
Participatory process Involving the entire community in the strategic management processes of a city.
PDCA The Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle also sometimes referred to as the Deming Cycle. The basic principles of all management systems.
Peer review Cities performing a critical review on each other on a pre-set theme or scope. I.e. Can be used for reviewing experiences in implementing an urban integrated management system
Performance audit The environmental assessment in accordance with EMAS consists of three elements the performance audit is an establishment of environmental impact
Preliminary report A document setting the outer framework, a starting point, for a financial budget. Preliminary report has been adopted as a tool by ecoBUDGET to manage resource consumption.
Resource approach The IMS has a resource approach in that it seeks to manage the resources available for local authorities i.e. financial, social and natural resources in an integrated way.
Significant aspect Significant environmental aspects are the most important environmental aspects which cause the highest environmental impact or are important due to legislation and other requirements. Significance equals the prioritizing (not relative) between chosen environmental aspects at an organization.
SMART target A target should be SMART i.e. specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time related
Strategic programme The document that sets out the long-term targets & measures for agreed priorities of the urban area of the local government. It is a long term overarching guideline document containing the principles for the strategic approach of the local goverments. It covers the intended means of achieving the ongoing programme.
SWOT-analysis Analytical tool to assess a situation for its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Used as part of the baseline review.
System In this tools primarily used for management system which share the basic elements of the Plan-Do –Check – Act cycle. It is a process. The basic idea of the management systems are continual improvements
System audit The environmental assessment in accordance with EMAS consists of three elements. The system audit is the assessment of the (environmental management-) system
Target A clearly defined goal to aim at. The actual development needs to be measured against a target. A target should be SMART i.e specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time related.
Tool A set of solutions and templates that help a practitioner to go through a given process. Tools are environmental instruments. To get the most out of these they should be used inside a system.
Town A community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. Usually, a "town" is thought of as larger than a village but smaller than a "city"
Urban area An area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it.
UTS or TSUE Urban Thematic Strategy or Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment. One of seven thematic strategies that make up the 6th Environmental Action Programme of the EU
Vertical integration Integration of local, regional and national levels
Whole urban area Within the MUE-25 framework addressing the whole urban area means: to address all relevant activities of all actors (municipality and stakeholders) within the borders of the political authority area and built-up city area that have significant environmental impacts.
Vision A commonly agreed image of what the city shall look like in the future